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BONE BROTH OR CHICKEN STOCK

TIME: BETWEEN 1 AND 5 HOURS, DEPENDING ON BONES USED AND DESIRED RESULT

YIELD: 3 QUARTS

GF • P

The difference between bone broth and regular broth, or stock, comes down to the length of the cooking time and the addition of acid to the cooking liquid. They taste very similar, though the bone broth has a slightly more intense flavor and a thicker, silkier texture than stock. They can be used interchangeably in recipes.

Really, the main difference is that many people consider bone broth to be therapeutic. The longer cooking time of a bone broth allows the collagen and minerals from the bones and connective tissue to dissolve into the liquid. This process is aided by adding a bit of acid to the pot, which also helps the bones break down (at the end of cooking, the bones should crumble if you press on them).

Bone broths need ample cooking time for all this to occur, at least 24 to 48 hours when simmered conventionally on the stove or in a slow-cooker. Regular stocks cook much more quickly; 2 to 4 hours is all you need on the stove.

But whether you are making bone broth or regular stock, the pressure cooker does the job much faster.Regular stocks will be ready in only an hour or two, while bone broths will be ready in an afternoon.

You can use any bones to make bone broth or stock. I usually use a combination of chicken bones left over from roasted birds (I keep them stored in the freezer) and fresh, meaty pork and beef soup bones that I get from the farmer’s market (you can also find them in the supermarket or at a butcher shop). But after the holidays one year, I used a goose carcass, and around Thanksgiving, turkey will likely be the bones of choice. Feel free to mix and match all manner of meat and fowl. Or if you want to make a particular kind of stock—say, chicken or beef—use bones only from that animal.

Roasting the bones before adding them to the pot caramelizes them and makes for a much richer and better-tasting broth. But for a light chicken stock you could skip that step.

INGREDIENTS:

3 pounds bones, preferably a mix of meaty bones and marrow-filled bones

3 tablespoons apple cider vinegar

1½ tablespoons coarse sea salt, or to taste

1 to 2 celery stalks

1 large carrot

1 large onion, 2 leeks, or a bunch of leek greens

1 whole clove or star anise pod

2 to 6 garlic cloves

5 to 7 sprigs fresh thyme or dill

5 to 7 sprigs fresh parsley

1 bay leaf

1 teaspoon black peppercorns

2 to 4 1-inch-thick coins peeled fresh ginger (optional)

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. If you want to roast the bones first, heat the oven to 450°F. Lay the bones out on a rimmed baking sheet and roast until well browned, 25 to 35 minutes.
  2. Put the bones (roasted or not) in the pressure cooker pot and add all the remaining ingredients. Cover with 3 to 3½ quarts of water (the water shouldn’t come more than two-thirds of the way up the side of the pot). To make regular stock, cook on high pressure for 1 hour if using all chicken or poultry bones, or 2 hours for beef or pork bones or a combination of poultry and meat. For bone broth, cook on high pressure for 3 hours for poultry bones, and 4½ hours for beef, pork, or mixed bones. When making bone broth, you’ll know you’ve cooked it long enough if all the connective tissue, tendons, and cartilage have dissolved and the bones crumble a bit when you poke at them. If this hasn’t happened, cook it on high pressure for another 30 minutes and check it again.
  3. Allow the pressure to release naturally. Strain the broth, discarding the solids. Use the broth or stock right away, or store it in the refrigerator or freezer. Bone broth and regular stock will keep for 5 days refrigerated or up to 6 months frozen.

COOK IT SLOW

Cook on low for 10 to 12 hours for regular stock, and 24 to 48 hours for bone broth.

To make VEGETABLE BROTH in the electric pressure cooker, combine 3 sliced onions and/or leeks, 3 sliced carrots, 3 sliced celery stalks with leaves, 2 garlic cloves, 1 halved plum tomato, 1 bay leaf, 1 teaspoon peppercorns, a large pinch of sea salt, 4 parsley sprigs, and a cup or so of mushrooms if you have them. Cover with water by 2 inches, cover, and cook on high pressure for 20 minutes. Allow the pressure to naturally release.

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